On 13 December 2023, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) issued a report on administrative sanctions and measures and criminal sanctions imposed under the Benchmarks Regulation (BMR) in 2022. The report is the second annual sanctions report pursuant to the BMR. It notes that in 2022, one administrative sanction and one administrative measure were imposed on, respectively, a supervised entity (user of benchmarks) and a supervised contributor by two Member State competent authorities for two infringements of the BMR. Additionally, no criminal sanctions were imposed in 2022. Taking into account that only one administrative sanction and one administrative measure were imposed in 2022, there is limited scope for observation of clear trends in the overall imposition of sanctions and measures.