On 31 March 2021, the Financial Stability Board (FSB) published the final report on its evaluation of the effects of too-big-to-fail (TBTF) reforms for systemically important banks (SIBs). The evaluation examines the extent to which the reforms have reduced the systemic and moral hazard risks associated with SIBs, as well as their broader effects on the financial system.

The evaluation finds that the TBTF reforms have made banks more resilient and resolvable, and that they have produced net benefits to society. Indicators of systemic risk and moral hazard moved in the right direction, suggesting that market participants view these reforms as credible. However, the evaluation also finds that some gaps need to be addressed. For example, the application of the reforms to domestic systemically important banks warrants further monitoring. In addition, risks arising from the shift of credit intermediation to non-bank financial intermediaries should continue to be closely monitored.